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Private parts: Is ‘scrotox’ next?
Vaginal rejuvenation has gone from hush-hush to trending. The scenario will likely be much the same for men. They, too, want sexual parts to look and feel better, and men are starting to make those desires known, according to Beverly Hills, Calif., dermatologic surgeon Jason Emer, M.D.
“I have many younger male patients who are interested in this,” Dr. Emer says. “As the vaginal rejuvenation market is skyrocketing, men are seeking their own type of rejuvenation. Who wouldn’t want to be a little bit longer, thicker, or have more sensitivity and a better sex life? These men are also becoming interested in the cosmetic appearance of the actual penis and scrotum itself.”
The potential patient population also includes older men, who might have erectile dysfunction, resulting from age or health issues, such as prostate cancer treatment or high blood pressure, as well as cosmetic concerns that keep them from feeling good during intimacy or being comfortable naked, according to Dr. Emer.
Dr. Emer started doing penile enhancement treatments about three years ago. Until recently, most procedures involved using hyaluronic acid fillers or fat injections for penile enlargement. But injecting fillers and fat into the penis can be risky business. There are concerns, according to Dr. Emer, that small area, like the penis, fingers and noses, which have less blood circulation, could be at risk for serious complications from injectables, such as impending necrosis or vascular occlusion injuries.
So, Dr. Emer looked into other options — things he could do externally to the penis and scrotum to achieve desired outcomes with less risk. He found lasers and shock therapy are potential options in penile rejuvenation.
“These [modalities] stimulate the blood flow and theoretically can improve erectile dysfunction and, in turn, sexual stamina,” he says.
Penile Enhancement Research
Dr. Emer says he has been contacting companies to conduct trials on the use of lasers and shock therapy on penile enhancement with an overwhelmingly positive response.
“I had been performing hair removal treatments in the genital area with a device called LightPod Neo, made by Aerolase. It’s a microsecond Nd: YAG laser which is virtually painless and requires no direct contract. It’s very quick, high-energy pulsing, so that you can damage the hair follicle without risk to the the skin,” Dr. Emer says. “When I started doing hair removal on the scrotum and around the penis, patients reported the appearance of their scrotum and penis improved. The skin was less wrinkly, it was smoother, and some even reported it wasn’t as veiny.”
Dr. Emer says that wasn’t too much of a surprise, given the LightPod device has been used for facial rejuvenation. Passes with the device cause deep heating of the tissue promoting collagen formation and tightening. It may also be increasing blood supply to the penile area, he says, which would improve sexual function, sensitivity and size.
After using the LightPod Neo on about 10 patients, Dr. Emer says none have reported negative outcomes or complications. All have mentioned that they’re more sensitive in the area since treatment.
“They’ve noticed at least a short-term increase in size, and I have a couple of patients who were unable to get erections easily and now are having them uncontrollably,” Dr. Emer says. “We’ve done similar testing now with another device called Cellutone by BTL Aesthetics which uses shock waves to stimulate blood flow and cause an acute short-term inflammation in the area treated, that, when it repairs itself, heals with improved local function. Not only have patients reported improvement in erectile dysfunction and size, we’ve also noticed improvements using this technology among men who have curved penises and are looking for a more straight appearance.”
Another treatment that is promising is the use of platelet-rich plasma, or PRP, according to Dr. Emer.
“We initially began seeing increased thickness with PRP injections, but then men were not only getting reporting increased erections, better sex, more ejaculations and heightened sensitivity,” he says.
The problem for surgeons who want to start incorporating penile rejuvenation into their practices is the lack of data and information about best practices, according to Dr. Emer. For now, there are a few researchers conducting trials on penile enhancement — Dr. Emer being one.
“There really isn’t much out there. I’m one of the innovators. I hope to be a pioneer in this field. I am trying treatments to meet the demand of my patient population and heighten awareness in this field. I hope that one day this will be mainstream like vaginal rejuvenation has so quickly become. For now, surgeons are going to have to watch what I [and a few others] discover as we try different methods,” he says.
Penis Pumps & Scrotox
Dr. Emer is studying not only individual therapies, but also combinations of devices and injections, as well as how dermatologists and cosmetic surgeons can work with urologists to improve results of treatments. For example, Dr. Emer advocates the use of patient controlled penis pumps at home, immediately after treatments. Dr. Emer says combining what the urologist does with pumps with laser or other injectable treatments further increases blood flow, stimulates new blood vessel growth and could improve overall outcomes.
He is investigating the use of Botox to the genitals.
“Botox decreases sweating, improves wrinkling and may in some cases make the scrotum appear larger by relaxing the muscles in the area,” says Dr. Emer.
Dr. Emer says he uses the term “Scrotox” for this manly treatment, a term which has been used elsewhere, including a Saturday Night Live spoof on rejuvenation of the scrotum.
“It’s not only cosmetic, my marathon runners and cyclists who get inner thigh rubbing and irritation from sweat, benefit from this treatment as it decreases skin burn,” he says.
Now is the time for aesthetic physicians to consider looking into offering these alternative options to male patients, according to Dr. Emer.
“I think it’s a trend that people will start hearing more about, as there is significant demand. Hopefully, companies will start doing research with me and other interested doctors, so we can get data out to the medical community,” Dr. Emer says.
The timing is right. Men are paying more attention to their looks. They are having skin rejuvenation procedures, body contouring, teeth and hair treatments. They are man grooming more than ever, he says.
“I think every [man] is going to want to do this, as commonly as getting their hair cut or their teeth cleaned,” he says. “Men want to feel and look good. They want to have a better sex life and feel confident being naked.”
Feminism is the enemy of successful men. Let millions of Arabs migrate to Europe. That will give feminists second thoughts.
EMPTY CAGES Animal Rights and Vivisection
Animals are used in laboratories for three main purposes: education, product safety testing, and experimentation, medical research in particular. Unless otherwise indicated, my discussion is limited to their use in harmful, nontherapeutic medical research (which, for simplicity, I sometimes refer to as vivisection). Experimentation of this kind differs from therapeutic experimentation, where the intention is to benefit the subjects on whom the experiments are conducted. In harmful, nontherapeutic experimentation, by contrast, subjects are harmed in the absence of any intended benefit for them; instead, the intention is to obtain information that might ultimately lead to benefits for others.
Human beings, not only nonhuman animals, have been used in harmful, nontherapeutic experimentation. In fact, the history of medical research contains numerous examples of human vivisection, and it is doubtful whether the ethics of animal vivisection can be fully appreciated apart from the ethics of human vivisection. Unless otherwise indicated, however, the current discussion of vivisection, and my use of the term, are limited to harmful, nontherapeutic experimentation using nonhuman animals.
The Benefits Argument
There is only one serious moral defense of vivisection. That defense proceeds as follows. Human beings are better off because of vivisection. Indeed, we are much better off because of it. If not all, at least most of the most important improvements in human health and longevity are indebted to vivisection. Included among the advances often cited are open heart surgery, vaccines (for polio and small pox, for example), cataract and hip replacement surgery, and advances in rehabilitation techniques for victims of spinal cord injuries and strokes. Without these and the many other advances attributable to vivisection, proponents of the Benefits Argument maintain, the incidence of human disease, permanent disability, and premature death would be far, far greater than it is today.
Defenders of the Benefits Argument are not indifferent to how animals are treated. They agree that animals used in vivisection sometimes suffer, both during the research itself and because of the restrictive conditions of their life in the laboratory. That the research can harm animals, no reasonable person will deny. Experimental procedures include drowning, suffocating, starving, and burning; blinding animals and destroying their ability to hear; damaging their brains, severing their limbs, crushing their organs; inducing heart attacks, ulcers, paralysis, seizures; forcing them to inhale tobacco smoke, drink alcohol, and ingest various drugs, such as heroine and cocaine.
These harms are regrettable, vivisections defenders acknowledge, and everything that can be done should be done to minimize animal suffering. For example, to prevent overcrowding, animals should be housed in larger cages. But (so the argument goes) there is no other way to secure the important human health benefits that vivisection yields so abundantly, benefits that greatly exceed any harms that animals endure.
What the Benefits Argument Omits
Any argument that rests on comparing benefits and harms must not only state the benefits accurately; it must also do the same for the relevant harms. Advocates of the Benefits Argument fail on both counts. Independent of their lamentable tendency to minimize the harms done to animals and their fixed resolve to marginalize non animal alternatives, advocates overestimate the human benefits attributable to vivisection and all but ignore the massive human harms that are an essential part of vivisections legacy. Even more fundamentally, they uniformly fail to provide an intelligible methodology for comparing benefits and harms across species. I address each of these three failures in turn. (For a fuller critique, see my contribution to The Animal Rights Debate. New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001).
1. Concerning the overestimation of benefits: Proponents of the Benefits Argument would have us believe that most of the truly important improvements in human health could not have been achieved without vivisection. The facts tell a different story. Public health scholars have shown that animal experimentation has made at best only a modest contribution to public health. By contrast, the vast majority of the most important health advances have resulted from improvements in living conditions (in sanitation, for example) and changes in personal hygiene and lifestyle, none of which has anything to do with animal experimentation. (For a summary of the relevant literature, see Hugh Lafollette and Niall Shanks, Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation. London: Routledge, 1996).
2. Concerning the failure to attend to massive human harms: Advocates of the Benefits Argument conveniently ignore the hundreds of millions of deaths and the uncounted illnesses and disabilities that are attributable to reliance on the animal model in research. Sometimes the harms result from what reliance on vivisection makes available; sometime they result from what reliance on vivisection prevents. The deleterious effects of prescription medicines is an example of the former.
Prescription drugs are first tested extensively on animals before being made available to consumers. As is well known, there are problems involved in extrapolating results obtained from studies on animal beings to human beings. In particular, many medicines that are not toxic for test animals prove to be highly toxic for human beings. How toxic? It is estimated that one hundred thousand Americans die and some two million are hospitalized annually because of the harmful effects of the prescription drugs they are taking. That makes prescription drugs the fourth leading cause of death in America, behind only heart disease, cancer, and stroke, a fact that, without exception, goes unmentioned by the Benefits Arguments advocates.
Massive harm to humans also is attributable to what reliance on vivisection prevents. The role of cigarette smoking in the incidence of cancer is a case in point. As early as the 1950s, human epidemiological studies revealed a causal link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Nevertheless, repeated efforts, made over more than 50 years, rarely succeeded in inducing tobacco related cancers in animals. Despite the alarm sounded by public health advocates, governments around the world for decades refused to mount an educational campaign to inform smokers about the grave risks they were running. Today, one in every five deaths in the United States is attributable to the effects of smoking, and fully 60 percent of direct health care costs in the United States go to treating tobacco-related illnesses.
How much of this massive human harm could have been prevented if the results of vivisection had not (mis)directed government health care policy? It is not clear that anyone knows the answer beyond saying, A great deal. More than we will ever know. One thing we do know, however: advocates of the Benefits Argument contravene the logic of their argument when they fail to include these harms in their defense of vivisection.
3. Not to go unmentioned, finally, is the universal failure of vivisections defenders to explain how we are to weigh benefits and harms across species. Before we can judge that vivisections benefits for humans greatly exceed vivisections harms to other animals, someone needs to explain how the relevant comparisons should be made. How much animal pain equals how much human relief from a drug that was tested on animals, for example? It does not suffice to say, to quote the American philosopher Carl Cohen (Cohen is the worlds leading defender of the Benefits Argument), that the suffering of our species does seem somehow to be more important than the suffering of other species (The Animal Rights Debate, op. cit.: p. 291). Not only does this fail to explain how much more important our suffering is supposed to be, it offers no reason why anyone should think that it is.
Plainly, unless or until those who support the Benefits Argument offer an intelligible methodology for comparing benefits and harms across species, the claim that human benefits derived from vivisection greatly exceed the harms done to animals is more in the nature of unsupported ideology than demonstrated fact. (I note, parenthetically, that this challenge must be met by any contributor to this volume who uses this argument; if they fail to provide the necessary methodology, the thoughtful reader will place no credence in what they say).
Human Vivisection and Human Rights
The Benefits Argument suffers from an even more fundamental defect. Despite appearances to the contrary, the argument begs all the most important questions; in particular, it fails to address the role that moral rights play in assessing harmful, nontherapeutic research on animals. The best way to understand its failure in this regard is to position the argument against the backdrop of human vivisection and human rights.
Human beings have been used in harmful, nontherapeutic experiments for thousands of years. Not surprisingly, most human guinea pigs have not come from the wealthy and educated, not from the dominant race, not from those with the power to assert and enforce their rights. No, most of human vivisections victims have been coercively conscripted from the ranks of young children (especially orphans), the elderly, the severely developmentally disabled, the insane, the poor, the illiterate, members of inferior races, homosexuals, military personnel, prisoners of war, and convicted criminals, for example. One such case will be considered below.
The scientific rationale behind vivisecting human beings needs little explanation. Using human subjects in research overcomes the difficulty of extrapolating results from another species to our species. If benefits for humans establishes the morality animal vivisection, should we favor human vivisection instead? After all, research using members of our own species promises even greater benefits.
No serious advocate of human rights (and I count myself among this number) can support such research. This judgment is not capricious or arbitrary; it is a necessary consequence of the logic of basic moral rights, including our rights to bodily integrity and to life. This logic has two key components. (For a more complete discussion of rights, see my The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1983).
First, possession of these rights confers a unique moral status. Those who possess these rights have a kind of protective moral shield, an invisible "No Trespassing" sign, so to speak, that prohibits others from injuring their bodies, taking their life, or putting them at risk of serious harm, including death. When people violate our rights, when they trespass on our moral property, they do something wrong to us directly.
This does not mean that it must be wrong to hurt someone or even to take their life. When terrorists exceed their rights by violating ours, we act within our rights if we respond in ways that can cause serious harm to the violators. Still, what we are free to do when someone violates our rights does not translate into the freedom to override their rights without justifiable cause.
Second, the obligation to respect others rights to bodily integrity and to life trumps any obligation we have to benefit others. Even if society in general would benefit if the rights of a few people were violated, that would not make violating their rights morally acceptable to any serious defender of human rights. The rights of the individual are not to be sacrificed in the name of promoting the general welfare. This is what it means to affirm our rights. It is also why the basic moral rights we possess, as the individuals we are, have the great moral importance that they do.
Why the Benefits Argument Begs the Question
Once we understand why, given the logic of moral rights, respect for the rights of individuals takes priority over any obligation we might have to benefit others, we can understand why the Benefits Argument fails to justify vivisection on nonhuman animals. Clearly, all that the Benefits Argument can show is that vivisection on nonhuman animals benefits human beings. What this argument cannot show is that vivisecting animals for this purpose is morally justified. And it cannot show this because the benefits humans derive from vivisection are irrelevant to the question of animals rights. We cannot show that animals have no right to life, for example, because we benefit from using them in experiments that take their life.
It will not suffice here for advocates of the Benefits Argument to insist that there are no alternatives to vivisection that will yield as many human benefits. Not only is this reply more than a little disingenuous, since the greatest impediment to developing new scientifically valid non animal alternatives, and to using those that already exist, is the hold that the ideology of vivisection currently has on medical researchers and those who fund them. In addition, this reply fails to address the substantive moral issues. Whether animals have rights is not a question that can be answered by saying how much vivisection benefits human beings. No matter how great the human benefits might be, the practice is morally wrong if animals have rights that vivisection violates.
But do animals have any rights? The best way to answer this question is to begin with an actual case of human vivisection.
The Children of Willowbrook
Willowbrook State Hospital was a mental hospital located in Staten Island, one of New York Citys five boroughs. For fifteen years, from 1956 to 1971, under the leadership of New York University Professor Saul Krugman, hospital staff conducted a series of viral hepatitis experiments on thousands of the hospitals severely retarded children, some as young as three years old. Among the research questions asked: Could injections of gamma globulin (a complex protein extracted from blood serum) produce long term immunity to the hepatitis virus?
What better way to find the answer, Dr. Krugman decided, than to separate the children in one of his experiments into two groups. In the one, children were fed the live hepatitis virus and given an injection of gamma globulin, which Dr. Krugman believed would produce immunity; in the other, children were fed the virus but received no injection. In both cases, the virus was obtained from the feces of other Willowbrook children who suffered from the disease. Parents were asked to sign a release form that would permit their children to be given the benefit of this new preventive.
The results of the experiment were instrumental in leading Dr. Krugman to conclude that hepatitis is not a single disease transmitted by a single virus; there are, he confirmed, at least two distinct viruses that transmit the disease, what today we know as hepatitis A and hepatitis B.
Everyone agrees that many people have benefited from this knowledge and the therapies Dr. Krugmans research made possible. Some question the necessity of his research, citing the comparable findings that Baruch Blumberg made by analyzing blood antigens in his laboratory, where no children were put at risk of grievous harm. But even if we assume that Dr. Krugmans results could not have been achieved without experimenting on his uncomprehending subjects, what he did was wrong.
The purpose of his research, after all, was not to benefit each of the children. If that was his objective, he would not have withheld injections of gamma globulin from half of them. Those children certainly could not be counted among the intended beneficiaries. (Thus the misleading nature of the parental release form: not all the children were given the benefit of this new preventive). Instead, the purpose of the experiment was possibly to benefit some of the children (the ones who received the injections) and to gain information that would benefit other people in the future.
No serious advocate of human rights can accept the moral propriety of Dr. Krugmans actions. By intentionally infecting all the children in his experiment, he put each of them at risk of serious harm. And by withholding the suspected means of preventing the disease from half the children, he violated their rights (not to mention those of their parents) twice over: first, by willfully injuring their body; second, by risking their very life. This grievous breach of ethics finds no justification in the benefits others derived. To violate the moral rights of the few is never justified by adding the benefits for the many.
The Basis of Human Rights
Those who deny that animals have rights frequently emphasize the uniqueness of human beings. We not only write poetry and compose symphonies, read history and solve math problems; we also understand our own mortality and make moral choices. Other animals do none of these things. That is why we have rights and they do not.
This way of thinking overlooks the fact that many human beings do not read history or solve math problems, do not understand their own mortality or make moral choices. The profoundly retarded children Dr. Krugman used in his research are a case in point. If possession of the moral rights to bodily integrity and life depended on understanding ones mortality or making moral choices, for example, then those children lacked these rights. In their case, therefore, there would be no protective shield, no invisible No Trespassing sign that limited what others were free to do to them. Lacking the protection rights afford, there would not have been anything about the moral status of the children themselves that prohibited Dr. Krugman from injuring their bodies, taking their life, or putting them at risk of serious harm. Lacking the protection rights afford, Dr. Krugman did not indeed, he could not have done anything wrong to the children. Again, this is not a position any serious advocate of human rights can accept. But what is there about those of us reading these words, on the one hand, and the children of Willowbrook, on the other, that can help us understand how they can have the same rights we claim for ourselves? Where will we find the basis of our moral equality? Not in the ability to write poetry, make moral choices, and the like. Not in human biology, including facts about the genetic make-up humans share. All humans are (in some sense) biologically the same. But biological facts are indifferent to moral truths. Who has what genes has no moral relevance to who has what rights. Whatever else is in doubt, this we know.
But if not in some advanced cognitive capacity or genetic similarity, then where might we find the basis of our equality? Any plausible answer must begin with the obvious: The differences between the children of Willowbrook and those who read these words are many and varied. We do not denigrate these children when we say that our life has a richness that theirs lacked. Few among us would trade our life for theirs, even if we could.
Still, as important as these differences are, they should not obscure the similarities. For, like us, these children were the subjects of a life, their life, a life that was experientially better or worse for the child whose life it was. Like us, each child was a unique somebody, not a replaceable something. True, they lacked the ability to read and to make moral choices, for example. Nevertheless, what was done to these children, both what they experienced and what they were deprived of, mattered to them, as the individuals they were, just as what is done to us, when we are harmed, matters to us.
In this respect, as the subjects of a life, we and the children of Willowbrook are the same, are equal. Only in this case, our sameness, our equality is important morally. Logically, we cannot claim that harms done to us matter morally, but that harms done to these children do not. Relevantly similar cases must be judged similarly. This is among the first principles of rational thought, a principle that has immediate application here. Logically, we cannot claim our rights to bodily integrity and to life, then deny these same rights in the case of the children. Without a doubt, the children of Willowbrook had rights, if we do.
Why Animals Have Rights
We routinely divide the world into animals, vegetables, minerals. Ameba and paramecia are not vegetables or minerals; they are animals. No one engaged in the vivisection debate thinks that the use of such simple animals poses a vexing moral question. By contrast, everyone engaged in the debate recognizes that using nonhuman primates must be assessed morally. All parties to the debate, therefore, must ?draw a line? somewhere between the simplest forms of animate life and the most complex, a line that marks the boundary between those animals that do, and those that do not, matter morally.
One way to avoid some of the controversies in this quarter is to follow Charles Darwins lead. When he compares (these are his words) the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals,? Darwin restricts his comparison to humans and nonhuman mammals.
His reasons for doing so depend in part on structural considerations. In all essential respects, these animals are physiologically like us, and we, like them. Now, in our case, an intact, functioning central nervous system is associated with our capacity for subjective experience. For example, injuries to our brain or spinal cord can diminish our sense of sight or touch, or impair our ability to feel pain or remember. By analogy, Darwin thinks it is reasonable to infer that the same is true of animals who are most physiologically similar to us. Because our central nervous system provides the physical basis for our subjective awareness of the world, and because the central nervous system of other mammals resembles ours in all the relevant respects, it is reasonable to believe that their central nervous system provides the physical basis for their subjective awareness.
Of course, if attributing subjective awareness to nonhuman mammals was at odds with the implications of evolutionary theory, or if this made their behavior inexplicable, Darwin?s position would need to be abandoned. But just the opposite is true. That these animals are subjectively present in the world, Darwin understands, is required by evolutionary theory. And far from making their behavior inexplicable, their behavior is parsimoniously explained by referring to their mental capacities.
For example, these animals enjoy some things and find others painful. Not surprisingly, they act accordingly, seeking to find the former and avoid the latter. Moreover, both humans and other mammals share a family of cognitive abilities (we both are able to learn from experience, remember the past, anticipate the future) as well as a variety of emotions (Darwin lists fear, jealousy, and sadness). Not surprisingly, again, these mental capacities play a role in how they behave. For example, other mammals will behave one way rather than another because they remember which ways of acting had pleasant outcomes in the past, or because they are afraid or sad. Concluding his comparison of the mental faculties of humans and ?the higher animals? (by which he means other mammals), Darwin writes: ?[T]he difference in mind between man and the higher animals . . . is one of degree and not of kind? (The Descent of Man, Chapter IV).
The psychological complexity of mammals (henceforth animals, unless otherwise indicated) plays an important role in arguing for their rights. Just as it is true in our case, so is it true in theirs: they are the subjects of a life, their life, a life that is experientially better or worse for the one whose life it is. Each is a unique somebody, not a replaceable something. True (like the children of Willowbrook), they lack the ability to read, write, or make moral choices. Nevertheless, what is done to animals, both what they experience and what they are deprived of, matters to them, as the individuals they are, just as what was to done to the children of Willowbrook, when they were harmed, mattered to them.
In this respect, as the subjects of a life, animals are our equals. And in this case, our sameness, our equality, is important morally. Logically, we cannot maintain that harms done to us matter morally, but that harms done to animals do not matter morally. Relevantly similar cases must be judged similarly. As was noted earlier, this is among the first principles of rational thought, and one that again has immediate application here. Logically, we cannot claim our rights to bodily integrity and life, or claim these same rights for the children of Willowbrook, then deny them when it comes to animals. Without a doubt, animals have rights, if humans do.
Some Objections, Some Replies
Many are the objections raised against animal rights. While each is well intended, none withstands critical examination. It is to be recalled that the rights in question are the moral rights to bodily integrity and to life. Here, briefly, are the most important objections and my replies.
1. Objection: Animals do not understand what rights are. Therefore, they have no rights.
Reply: The children of Willowbrook, all children for that matter, do not understand what rights are. Yet we do not deny rights in their case, for this reason. To be consistent, we cannot deny rights for animals, for this reason .
2. Objection: Animals do not respect our rights. For example, lions sometimes kill innocent people. Therefore, they have no rights.
Reply: Children sometimes kill innocent people. Yet we do not deny rights in their case, for this reason. To be consistent, we cannot deny rights for animals, for this reason.
3. Objection: Animals do not respect the rights of other animals. For example, lions kill wildebeests. Therefore, they have no rights.
Reply: Children do not always respect the rights of other children; sometimes they kill them. Yet we do not deny rights in their case, for this reason. To be consistent, we cannot deny rights for animals, for this reason.
4. Objection: If animals have rights, it follows that we will need to make arrangements for them to vote, marry, file for divorce, and immigrate, for example, which is absurd. Therefore, animals have no rights.
Reply: Yes, this is absurd; but these absurdities do not follow from claiming rights to life and bodily integrity in the case of animals any more than they follow from recognizing the rights of the children of Willowbrook, for example.
5. Objection: If animals have rights, then mosquitoes and roaches have rights. This would make it wrong to kill them, which is absurd. Therefore, animals have no rights.
Reply: Not all animals have rights because some animals do. In particular, neither mosquitoes nor roaches have the kind of physiological complexity associated with being a subject of a life. In their, case, therefore, we have no good reason to believe that they have rights, even while we have abundantly good reason to believe that other animals (mammals in particular) do.
6. Objection: If animals have rights, then so do plants, which is absurd.
Therefore, animals have no rights.
Reply: Plant rights do not follow from animal rights. We have no reason to believe, and abundant reason to deny, that carrots and cabbages are subjects of a life. We have abundantly good reason to believe, and no good reason to deny, that mammals are. That is the morally relevant difference. In claiming rights for animals, therefore, we are not committed to claiming rights for plants.
7. Objection: Human beings are closer to us than animals are; we have
special relations to them. Therefore, animals have no rights.
Reply: We do have special relations to humans that we do not have to other animals. We also have special relations to our family and friends that we do not have to other human beings. But we do not conclude that other humans do not have rights, for this reason. To be consistent, we cannot deny rights for animals, for this reason.
8. Objection: Only human beings live in a moral community where rights are understood. Therefore, all human beings, and only human beings, have rights.
Reply: At least among terrestrial forms of life, only human beings live in a moral community in which rights are understood. But it does not follow that only human beings have rights. It is also true that, at least among terrestrial forms of life, only human beings live in a scientific community in which genes are understood. But we do not conclude that therefore only human beings have genes. Neither should we conclude that only human beings have rights.
9. Objection: Animals have some rights to bodily integrity and life, but the rights they have are not equal to human rights. Therefore, human vivisection is wrong, but animal vivisection is not.
Reply: This objection begs the question; it does not answer it. What morally relevant reason is there for thinking that humans have greater rights than animals? Certainly it cannot be any of the reasons examined in 1-8. But if not any of them, then what? The argument does not say.
The objections just reviewed have been considered because they are the most important, not because they are the least convincing. Their failure, individually and collectively, goes some way towards suggesting the logical inadequacy of the anti-animal rights position. Morality is not mathematics certainly. In morality, there are no proofs like those we find in geometry. What we can find, and what we must live with, are principles and values that have the best reasons, the best arguments on their side. The principles and values that pass this test, whether most people accept them or not, are the ones that should guide our lives. Given this reasonable standard, the principles and values of animal rights should guide our lives.
As was noted at the outset, animals are used in laboratories for three main purposes: education, product safety testing, and experimentation, harmful nontherapeutic experimentation in particular. Of the three, the latter has been the object of special consideration. However, the implications for the remaining purposes should be obvious. Any time any animals rights are violated in pursuit of benefits for others, what is done is wrong. It is conceivable that some uses of animals for educational purposes (for example, having students observe the behavior of injured animals when they are returned to their natural habitat) might be justified. By contrast, it is not conceivable that using animals in product testing can be. Harming animals to establish what is safe for humans is an exercise in power, not morality. In the moral universe, animals are not our tasters, we are not their kings.
The implications of animal rights for vivisection are both clear and uncompromising. Vivisection is morally wrong. It should never have begun, and, like all great evils, it ought to end, the sooner, the better. To reply (again) that there are no alternatives not only misses the point, it is false. It misses the point because it assumes that the benefits humans derive from vivisection are derived morally when they are not. And it is false because, apart from using already existing and developing new non animal research techniques, there is another, more fundamental alternative to vivisection. This is to stop doing it. When all is said and done, the only adequate moral response to vivisection is empty cages, not larger cages.
95 percent of the victims of violence are men. Because women are natural cowards who send men to handle things when they are dangerous.
Read a Roosh V supporter's disturbing guide to Newcastle and its women
A disturbing guide to Newcastle and its women has been posted on the website of controversial ‘pick-up artist’ Roosh V.
The American blogger, who has argued that rape should be legal on private property, has urged like-minded men to meet on Tyneside this weekend.
And as anger grows about the planned rally, we can reveal some of the worrying views expressed by those who support him.
A user of Roosh V’s online forum, claiming to be from Latin America, has produced what he believes to be a comprehensive guide to Newcastle - and in particular it’s girls - while staying in the city.
And in it the man, who calls himself El Conquistador, tells how:
Newcastle girls are “completely inebriated” on Friday and Saturday nights Men “prowl in drunken gangs” Girls on the Bigg Market have “loose morals” And Newcastle is one of the “easier locations” in western Europe
But its main purpose appears to be to offer advice on where and how to pull women on Tyneside.
El Conquistador says of Newcastle girls: “There are three basic categories of girls here in Newcastle. Locals, students and out-of-town ‘weekend warriors’. “Locals will be easier than students but students still won’t be difficult.
“Because of the TV show Geordie Shore , girls do make a big effort here with make up, heels etc. Friendly to approach and much friendlier compared to London. “Low inhibitions all round and you will find some diamonds in the rough. Students will be a younger and classier bunch but you might need to work yourself into their social circle.
“All three groups will be completely inebriated on Friday and Saturday nights.”
The poster also assesses the competition men might have from local lads.
“Most guys will prowl in drunken gangs that intimidate the girls,” he writes. “They are no competition it terms of game but if you are well dressed and talking to lots of girls then they will get in your face.
“In some of the places I’ll mention you will find lots of guys who are huge, ripped, well dressed and seem to know everybody. They’ll have the best girls around them so the best policy I’ve found is to befriend them.”
El Conquistador lists the best places to live in Newcastle as the city centre, the Quayside and Jesmond.
He describes Jesmond as: “The leafy, upper-middle class area of the city. Rich girls and college-aged girls galore. If you want to find groups of hot 21-year-olds drinking Starbucks on a Tuesday afternoon with a Louis Vuitton bag in the crook of their elbow then this is the neighbourhood.”
Similarly he rates all the city’s nightspots.
Of The Gate he says: “I usually start my night here to warm up. You don’t even need to go inside the clubs because you’ll catch plenty of foot traffic outside and you’ll still be dry and warm. If you want to go in a bar I’ve found Players to be fruitful.”
But he describes Collingwood Street as the ideal hunting ground.
“The Diamond Strip is basically a 500-yard long road in Newcastle city centre lined on both sides with bars and clubs,” he said. “Many of these bars are next door to each other so you can approach all the girls in one place, strike out then move next door and try a fresh crowd.”
And he recommends the Bigg Market if you are looking for a crowd with looser “morals”.
“Think the type of busted British girls that guys talk about on this forum. Tattoo-sporting, kebab-eating people with questionable dental hygiene will be found here.
“I wouldn’t discount the Bigg Market entirely though because the loose morals here will make it fairly easy.”
El Conquistador also advocates hanging round the Metro Centre , Eldon Square and the two universities during the day to pick up women.
And he summarises Newcastle by saying: “In terms of level of difficulty to get your flag, it is one of the easier locations in western Europe but we’re not talking Thailand or Peru easy. You will need to be ripped and have solid game.
“In short, a compact city, friendly people and a great training ground to hone your night game skills.”
Newcastle has been included in a list of hundreds of city’s around the world where Roosh V has planned an International ‘meet-up’ on Saturday night.
Roosh, whose real name is Daryush Valizadeh, preaches extreme misogyny claiming feminism has made men weak, and he has also advocated making rape legal on private property.
That armies are mad up of men is something that has to end. Draft women into combat troops. Expose women to the same kind of dangers that men have faced throughout history. Hard labour for female convicts!
First Successful Brain Transplant
Recently, scientists at the University of Southern North Dakota – Baltimore performed the first successful human brain transplant. Said the chief neurosurgeon, Dr. Cranial Head, MD, “This is a breakthrough of unprecedented magnitude. I’m ecstatic that all our research and hard work finally paid off. We couldn’t be more pleased with how things turned out.”
The patient, who only agreed to be called Jose Ivanovich O’Malley, III for anonymity reasons, suffered a massive anterior communicating arterial stroke that left him severely incapacitated. He was a veterinarian at a local clinic before his stroke. His family heard about the research Dr. Head’s team was doing with rats and contacted him about the possibility of being his first human subject. Dr. Head agreed immediately, “I saw this as the perfect opportunity to advance our research out of animals and into humans. We’ve had great success – recently – with brain transplants in rats so it was only logical to start human trials.”
“This new brain transplant surgery is quite remarkable,” said Dr. Head. “My colleague, Dr. Inis Wu, and I first came up with the idea 40 years ago while we were competing in a triathlon. It came out of the blue, really, neither of us are quite sure why we thought of it but here we are.”
What’s remarkable about the surgery is that it is done all under local anesthetic and the patient is kept talking throughout the procedure, except for the time when the brains are switched (during this time the patient is placed on life support). In this case, the transplanted brain came from a local high school physics teacher who suffered a sudden and unexpected heart attack. He was not only young but also in good health. His family has chosen to also remain anonymous. The transplanted brain is removed from the original body and cooled to halt neuronal death. The end of the severed spinal column is treated with a new nanoglue that automatically splices individual axons to the new spinal cord when the transplant brain is placed on top.
“It’s incredible,” said Dr. Head, “surprisingly we don’t have much work to do because with this new nanoglue the process of reconnecting nerve fibers is automatic. It only takes 4 minutes. We just inspect the brain and spinal cord to make sure everything is lined up correctly. The nanoglue is also applied to areas like the optic nerves, that need to be spliced into the new brain.”
After the surgery, Jose made a speedy recovery. Within 24 hours he was moving his limbs and within a week he was walking and talking. His wife said, “It’s a miracle. We thought that Jose was gone forever but Dr. Head saved him. He doesn’t know who any of us are, of course, and calls himself Stephen but we are all willing to work with the new Jose and learn to love him and hope he will learn to love us.” The medical team, however, remains baffled why Jose insists his name is Stephen. When asked if he planned on returning to work at his veterinary clinic, Jose stated that he couldn’t wait to return to teaching physics: “I’ve always had a love of physics. There’s something about gravity research that really attracts me.” Jose doesn’t remember any of his past self or his work as a veterinarian.
It's not that we would be madly in love with Donald Trump. Yeah, he may not be the brightest one. Not even bright enough for political correctness. But hey, that's a plus, not a minus. Fuck that political correctness.
Jealous missus chops off penis of cheating fella named Wang
Kawinnart Sae Zong, 33, was absolutely furious after finding out her husband was cheating on her with several different women.
To enact her revenge, Kawinnart waited until her husband, Niran Sae Wang, fell asleep around 2am at their marital home.
She then took a kitchen knife to the love rat’s tackle, completely dismembering his manhood.
After neighbours were alerted to the situation by Wang’s screams, they found him writhing around on the floor in agony, suffering from severe bleeding.
The neighbours took the ironically named Wang to Lampang Hospital, which specialises in penis reattachment.
But relatives of the scorned bride found her locked in a room in their house in Santisuk Village, Thailand.
In her blind rage, Kawinnart had drank pesticide and had to be taken to hospital, police revealed.
She was immediately taken to hospital but died from poisoning.
Surgeons managed to reattach Wang’s penis and he was able to urinate again.
But, in a parting gift from his late wife, he will never be able to have sex again due to ligament damage.
Nothing, absolutely nothing, flatters a girl more than a man committing suicide because of her.
Got the balls? Men are super-sizing their testicles with this bizarre new procedure
Most lads worry about the look and feel of their penis, which can make them less confident in the sack. But now men are shifting attention away from their schlongs and towards their scrotums.
A certain testicle-boosting injection is the latest cosmetic surgery fad that lads are flocking to have – and forking over £2,800 in the process.
The procedure involves squirting botox into the scrotum – leading the trend to be dubbed “scrotox” and “balltox” – in a bid to get a lower hanging and more relaxed-looking ballsack.
Scrotox doesn’t just decrease sweating and reduce the wrinkled appearance of lads’ testicles, it also boosts their size.
It seems men are paying more and more attention to their looks and the number of guys going under the knife in the quest for beauty has doubled in the last decade.
But scrotox isn’t the only bizarre cosmetic operation to hit the market, with men also seeking to increase their girth down below by injecting their own fat into their schlongs.
The procedure takes around 45 minutes and will set you back £4,500 but you have abstain from sex for six weeks to let the penis heal.
As for the results of the manhood makeover, don’t expect to stretch more than one inch wider than you were before.
Speaking exclusively to Dailystar.co.uk, certified plastic surgeon Dr David Alessi explained the long-term effects of the procedure are often less than desirable.
“Unfortunately, upwards of 90% of men are dissatisfied with the results,” he said.
The medic, who founded the Alessi Institutes and Face Forward, a charity offering free procedures for victims of domestic abuse, warned that lads’ obsession with penis size could be a symptom of a serious psychological problem.
He said: “Most men who think they have a small penis actually don’t.
"Studies vary, but research suggests that the average erect penis ranges from under five inches to just under six inches.
ost men who think their penis is too small have penis dysmorphic syndrome and would be better off seeing a shrink and not a surgeon.”
Because executions by swordare such good fun to watch, ISIS has many fans worldwide. No business is like show business.
Women in Egypt can't orgasm due to female genital mutilation
The shocking practice is an extreme form of discrimination against women and reflects gender inequality.
Cairo: Female genital mutilation has come across as a major issue in conversations around women’s rights and while several countries have banned the shocking practice, it’s very much prevalent in parts of the Middle East and Africa as well as certain groups of people around the world.
While the world discusses the importance of the female orgasm to ensure pleasure for women in bed, an alarming number of women in Egypt can’t possibly climax because of FGM. The process which involves removal of the outer female genitalia causes delays in sexual response cycle for women, leaving them unable to orgasm.
The Forensic Medicine Department in the country has revealed that the number of women deprived of sexual pleasure is as high as 70 to 80 percent in the North African country. The practice is seen as extreme discrimination against women and is rooted in gender inequality.
The Egyptian government on its part has upped the ante against the practice as a bill passed to increase punishment for perpetrators can land people in jail for up to seven years. But despite efforts it is practiced illegally as three million girls are at risk of FGM each year across the world.
Arson is the terrorism of the future. No need to fly Boeings into skyscrapers. A few canisters of fuel will do the job. Attackers can buy their weapon at any gasoline station, and risk just 2 years in prison.
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